Vitalik Buterin discussed the relevance of ZK-Rollups in Ethereum scalability.

Vitalik Buterin outlined a "likely roadmap" for the growth of Ethereum, suggesting that the network of the second largest cryptocurrency by market capitalization will be able to scale while remaining trustworthy and resistant to censorship. The concept is built around the ZK-Rollups technology. According to Buterin, the "medium large blockchain" is defined by frequent generation of massive blocks, high throughput ("thousands of transactions per second"), and low decentralization. This is owing to the fact that, due to their size, only a few nodes are actively involved in the creation of the blocks, resulting in higher operating expenses. According to Ethereum's founder, rollups improve the efficiency of block validation but do not solve the problem of centralized generation. He believes there are two choices for full-scale adoption of the technology: either "everyone will shift" to one Rollup, or network activity would be distributed over multiple solutions. In the first case, sharding at the Ethereum level is required, and the blockchain must be able to keep all of the dominant solution's data while spreading it among its segments. "We're headed toward a world where block production is centralized, verification is trustless and decentralized, and censorship is no longer a reality." "Block producers must manage a high number of transactions, which makes entrance more difficult, but they lack the capacity to push erroneous blocks," Buterin concluded. In contrast, none of the Rollups initiatives were able to capture the majority of Ethereum network activity. The ecosystem will be constructed similarly to Cosmos in this case, with numerous independent blockchains representing it. Cross-chain bridges will provide communication between these parts. "It appears that this technique will allow us to accomplish everything: decentralized validation, good censorship protection, and even distributed block manufacture, because all Rollups are small and easy to get started with." "However, due to the possibility of cross-domain MEV, decentralization of block generation may prove fleeting," Ethereum's creator said. Buterin stated that an architecture that allows for the generation of blocks "across many domains" at the same time allows for arbitrage. Furthermore, he suggested that the same individuals may come to dominate block production across all domains. According to the Ethereum founder, a "block mining auction mechanism," the inclusion of "censorship-resistant bypass channels" in Rollups, or a combination of the two. The recommendations are all for the PBS mainnet. According to Buterin, the ETH blockchain is "open to all options" because its roadmap is centered on Rollups. As a result, its backers "do not have to choose the winners." He also claimed that this system will take "years of refining and auditing."
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